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» Carcass Utilisation Plant. :
 

A NOTE ON FALLEN CARCASS UTILISATION PLANT

There are two technologies for UTILISATION OF CARCASS. They are:

  1. DRY PROCESS
  2. WET PROCESS

In case of larger animals like Cows, Buffalos, there is a significant value of dead animals. The value is in the following items.

  • HIDE
  • MEAT MEAL
  • BONE MEAL
  • TALLOW
  • HOOF
  • HORN

The separation of hide, horn and hoof are undertaken and the balance carcass is conventionally discarded. The discarded items also have value and the same can be processed. The CARCASS RENDERING PLANT will be handling feedstock DEVOID OF HIDE, HORN, HOOFS AND RUMEN contents. The material contains PROTEIN, FAT and water in different proportions and rendering is a process to recover Proteins and Fats while eliminating water. If rendering is not done the material get Putrified. After processing the products, items obtained are MEAT MEAL, BONE MEAL AND TALLOW. The quality and quantity of the above depends largely on the weight of the ANIMAL and level of nutrition the animal had. By following two different processes technology distinctly different yields are received. Apart from the quantity of yield there is difference in the quality also. Superior quality material will get better prices for the processor. For the purpose of assessing the suitable technological route a study is done with an assumption of the Plant to process about 7-10 CARCASS/DAY. It is assumed that the plant will run at 20 Hr/Day.

M/S.CLRI and CMRI have developed equipment and PROCESS FOR CARCASS UTILISATION PLANT BY WET ROUTE. The main operations of processing of CARCASS (WITHOUT HIDE AND HOOFS) are

A. CUTTING OF MEAT AND BONE.
B. RENDERING OF CARCASS
C. SEPARATION OF MEAT FROM BONE
D. MINCING OF MEAT.


The material is to be sterilised and cooked. This can be done by properly heating for required temperature and in wet rendering the material is subjected to steam at low pressure. This essentially means at lower temperature slightly above 1000C and at lower temperature differential the heat penetration takes longer. The wet RENDERING COOKER operates around 25-40 PSI./SQ. inch pressure. As per the information available the cooker is heated for 2 Hrs. and pressure is kept around 25 PSI. If bone is to be cooked the pressure is kept at 30PSI.

With a view of ensuring proper and complete cooking the vessel is kept closed and allowed to cool. Initially the heat input is for about 2 Hrs. and the cooling period will be as long as 6 hrs. The feed material is normally cut into small pieces manually for easy handling and charging. With regards to operating pressure some centres operate at 40 PSI.

The cooked mass is emptied the floor, soft tissue and bones are separated manually. It is to be noted that the moisture contents of the cooked meat is around 55%, This makes it necessary to mince the soft tissue are extruded into pellets. The PELLETS/MINCED MEAT is to be dried at the earliest. Otherwise, it is subjected to bacterial attack and deterioration. It is normally sun dried and it is necessary to use dryer to get the moisture contents below 8%. The separated bone is pulverised separately. The hot tallow and hot liquid collected from the COOKER is allowed to cool and the FLOATING, FAT LAYER IS COLLECTED AND STORED.

A certain level of mechanisation and better technique in rendering produces better quality product and speedy production. The manpower get better utilised.

After the above operation the following operations are to be undertaken.

  1. DRYING OF MEAT MEAL
  2. PRE BREAKING OF BONE
  3. DRYING OF BONE
  4. PULVERISING OF MEAT AND BONE


The products obtained by the above processing are MEAT and TALLOW pulverised MEAT MEAL and pulverised BONE MEAL. The MUTTON TALLOW is used for manufacture of soaps. BONE MEAL is used for manufacture of gelatine and MEAT MEAL may be used for POULTRY FEED. But, quite often is discarded for composting and formation of manure.

The drying of MEAT MEAL does not produce the material, which will have good shelf life. Hence, quite often the MEAT MEAL can be used for feeding to pigs. It is also risky to feed the POULTRY as it is sensitive to microbes which gets generated because of IMPROPER DRYING.

The alternative technology is DRY RENDERING where the following operations are to be undertaken after DEHIDING, REMOVING HORN and hoof. They are

  1. BREAKING OF CARCASS
  2. PREBREAKING
  3. COOKING/STERILISATION/DRYING
  4. COLLECTION OF FAT
  5. CENTRIFUGING
  6. PULVERISING


In dry rendering process the objective is to raise the PROCESS TEMPERATURE higher whereby the bacteria is destroyed. STERILISATION AND COOKING are completed in DRY RENDERING the time taken is in the order of 1½ Hr.

The COOKER is operating at 100 PSI and the MEAL is constantly tumbled for speedy heat transfer and FASTER COOKING. Obnoxious fumes are bled through a Condenser to the Neutralising Tank, which avoid atmospheric pollution and smell. For CUTTING THE CARCASS into SMALLER PIECES a PREBREAKER can be utilised which cuts PIECES OF LESS THAN 2” size and substantial labour saving. Because of smaller size much faster cooking is achieved.

By release of pressure after cooking the STEAM/MOISTURE content in the CARCASS is released to the atmosphere thereby reducing the MOISTURE. The higher temperature ensures SPEEDY SEPARATION of FAT IN THE PERCOLATING TANK.

The hot material from the Percolating Tank is taken to CENTRIFUGE, which is heated by STEAM JACKET. The centrifuging is done at higher temperature whereby even small quantity of prepared fat in the DRY MASS is eliminated.

The dry mass, which is DEVOID FAT, has much as longer shelf life. The speedy operation of PREBREAKING, high PRESSURE COOKING and CENTRIFUGING results in efficient recovery of TALLOW, PRODUCTION of GOOD QUALITY protein and saving of labour. The pulveriser Mill is utilised for powdering the material for producing powder, which can be conveniently packed for processing.

The activity of SEPARATING THE MEAT from BONE is not feasible in this route. The prebreaking of the CARCASS ensures breaking of the bones whereby extraction of fat from the bone is better.
The cooking is at higher pressure and hence higher temperature whereby complete sterilisation is assured. After cooking and sterilisation, by careful release of pressure from the cooker the interior moisture from the meat is also driven away. The putrification fumes and moisture that are released pass through a CONDENSER and the resultant liquid is fed into a NEUTRALISATION TANK. Because of this atmospheric and water pollutions are avoided.

Because of cooking in higher temperature, and better extraction of fat from BROKEN BONES, the SEPARATION/EXTRACTION of fat is better.

Because of better sterilisation and better elimination of moisture the product has longer shelf life.
The material that is discharged from the COOKER is quite hot (about 80 Degree Centigrade) and the fat is separated in the PERCOLATION TANK. The MEAT and BONE MEAL with a SMALL QUANTITY of FAT is subjected to CENTRIFUGING. The resultant material from the centrifuging is substantially dried having moisture content of 3-4% and practically no fat. This is pulverised for producing MEAT CUM BONE MEAL, which can be safely added in the preparation of the POULTRY FEED, as the meat is properly sterilised. It is estimated that from SINGLE CARCASS, the following items are produced by WET RENDERING PROCESS.

MEAT MEAL = 17 KG
BONE MEAL = 20 KG
TALLOW = 8 KG

When the CARCASS is produced through the DRY SYSTEM the QUANTITY of MEAT CUM BONE MEAL is separated. The TALLOW QUAsorry LITY superior and because of total extraction it can be as high as 10 Kg./Carcass.



 
 
 
 
 


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